Eye malignancies have no known etiology in particular.
There are, however, some risk factors connected to ocular malignancies. Certain characteristics increase a person’s risk of developing these malignancies.
However, these risk variables are not directly related. This implies that not everyone who possesses these risk factors will get eye cancer. However, being aware of these elements may support healthy lifestyle decisions and the avoidance of some hazardous exposures.
variables that increase the risk of intraocular melanoma
As far as eye cancers go, intraocular melanoma is the most prevalent. The following are the risk factors most frequently linked to this form of eye cancer: (1, 2, 3, 4). –
Caucasians or white people have a higher chance of developing melanomas than African Americans or Asian Americans do. Skin melanomas are also more common among white people. When it comes to risk association, eye melanomas follow a similar trend.
Age: After the age of 50, primary intraocular melanoma is frequently diagnosed. Children and those over the age of 70 are less likely to develop it.
Eye melanoma affects both men and women equally frequently due to sex.
Eye or iris color: People with light-colored eyes are more likely to develop intraocular melanoma. Individuals with blue, grey, green, or any other light eyes are more at risk than those with brown eyes. Although the exact cause is unknown, it is assumed that the risk assessment is related to whites’ higher likelihood of developing skin and ocular melanomas.
Sun exposure-Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in excess, whether from the sun or tanning beds, increases the chance of developing skin melanomas. Whites and Caucasians in particular are affected by this. There is no proof that this applies to ocular melanomas, although there are fears that a similar link may apply.
Eye melanomas are more common in those with inherited disorders such as dysplastic nevus syndrome. Over 100 moles of varying sizes and shapes cover the skin of these people. Eye melanomas can also develop in those who have nevus of Ota, abnormal brown lesions on the uvea. Eye melanomas are also more likely in those with nevi or lesions inside or around the eye. Eye melanomas are also more common in people with oculodermal melanocytosis, a condition marked by brown spots over the uvea. Eye melanomas may also run in some families and be inherited.
Occupational dangers Eye melanomas are more common in workers in industries like agriculture, fishing, welding, and laundry.
Other types of eye cancer and their risk factors
Primary intraocular lymphoma is more likely to affect those who have compromised or suppressed immune systems, such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), those on anti-rejection medication after receiving an organ transplant, or the elderly.
Chlamydophila psittaci infection can occasionally increase the chance of developing ocular lymphoma. The bacterium is spread by domesticated birds and animals like cats that are affected. Lung infections and conjunctivitis, an inflammation of the eyelids, resulting from this. Adnexal malt lymphoma and this bacterium are connected.
Squamous cell cancer of the eyes is also more likely when immunity is lowered. Those who have HIV/AIDS and are taking medications that lower their immunity are at greater risk.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the eye may occasionally result from human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the eye. Cervical and oral malignancies are linked to this virus. The risk of this kind of eye cancer is also increased by sun and UV light exposure.
Eye Kaposi sarcoma is more frequent in those with HIV or AIDS. The tumor is unusual.
Retinoblastoma is an eye malignancy that primarily affects young children. This illness is risky due to a defective gene. Thus, this condition is hereditary and if it is not found and treated early, it can cause blindness or even death in a kid.